BRAF is a human gene that makes a protein called B-Raf. It’s involved in sending cellular signals that direct cell growth. B-Raf has been shown to be faulty in cancers and studies suggest that abnormalities of this protein are prevalent in children suffering from Pilocytic Astrocytomas. One such study suggested that as many of 70% of such children have abnormal B-Raf proteins. Furthermore, that study seems to suggest that the clinical outcome is vastly improved for children with a B-Raf abnormality. Indeed, about three out of every five of the children in the study experienced 5 years progression-free disease but only one out of every five children without the faulty B-Raf protein. Consequently, medicines that target B-Raf mutations are an active area of research.